Basic Broadcasting


Broadcasting The process of sending signals to multiple locations simultaneously either via satellite, radio, television, data communications on the network and so on. In broadcasting also deepen the science of society, meaning how do we to go directly and dealing with the wider community.

In career broadcast education include:
1.Presenter
2.Cameramen
3. Media reporters
4.World of film, such as: director, producer, editing, etc.
Presenter
The television presenter is an emcee or television program. Currently the term is often attached to celebrities who often play this role, although there are also non-celebrity people who managed to pursue this career, especially in the world of children's television program, where celebrities become less important.
A television presenter is usually also an actor, singer, and more, but is generally famous for being a presenter of a particular program. The exception is a presenter for a political or scientific program that is usually a professional in his field, or a celebrity who works in one area but has an interest in another.

 The radio presenter is a person assigned to disseminate any or more information that is accurately guaranteed by using the radio in order to be known to the listener, implemented, obeyed and understood.
The broadcaster is also called DJ (Disk Jockey), the songwriter, as he presents the songs and "voices" as "links" or couples between songs. Speaker's voice and talk-if "fit" with the songs played-will increase the listener's enjoyment in listening to the song.

Tips to be a Radio presenter
1. Insights on local, national and international events. A presenter let alone deliver the news every day.
2. Standard sound. Everyone has a sound color. Find your voice by practicing. Sound is an important device in radio. Therefore, realizing the importance of vocal cords in a presenter is essential. Whether the color of ana bass, baritone or shrill sounds, everything is still possible depending on the radio to be entered.
3. Authoritative but relaxed. Radio is an intimate medium. Your voice needs to be authoritative but sound familiar. Authoritative tones that can be described as a familiar voice in the ear but contains a straightforward and direct atmosphere. He does not sound stale and long-pang but sounds natural and flowing.


CAMERAMAN
Cameraman is a person who operates video cameras for movie and / or video recording. And the cameraman is entitled to take pictures personally as stock images.

Requirements to be a reliable cameraman:
1. Have a high instinct in determining the shooting of aesthetic value.
2. Can set the quantity of light when shooting.
3. Must master shooting technique.
4. Mastering the contents of the scenario.
5. Not nervous / groggy when shooting

Shot Size
1. Extreme Long shot: Shooting with all objects until the object looks small.
2. Long Shot: Images recorded from a great distance. Usually by way of taking from a long and wide angle.
3. Medium Long shot: Images taken from long distances and far.
4. Medium Shot: Medium distance capture, approximately ½ part of the visible object (up to the waist).
5. Medium Close Up: Shooting from close range.
Close Up: Shooting from close range.
7. Extreme Close Up: Shooting from close range.
8. Full Shot: Shooting by showing clearly all parts of the object.

Classification of Camera Motion
1. Lens Shift
- Zoom In: Shooting with one object (no background).
- Zoom Out: Shooting with objects that look small (with background).
2. Rely On Axis
- Tilt Up / Down: Shot from bottom to top / vice versa.
- Panning / Wipe: Shooting with sweeping technique (Horizontal or vertical).
3. Entire Agency
- Follow: The shooting that follows the object.
- Track In / Out: Shooting with camera moving closer to object / vice versa.
- Swing: Shooting with floating technique.

Object Movement Classification
1. In Frame: Shooting with the movement of objects into the camera frame from the side.
2. Out Frame: Shooting with the movement of the object to the side out of the camera frame.
3. Fade In: Shooting with object movement approaching camera.
4. Fade Out: Shooting with moving objects away from the camera.

Angle Camera
1. High Angle
is a shooting with a camera viewing angle from above.
2. Medium / Normal Angle
is a shooting with the camera's point of view from a normal / standard position.
3. Low angle
is a picture taking with camera viewing angle from below.

TIPS Being a Television Cameraman
1. Discuss and predict the unexpected things that will happen with the team, about what yan
2.Recam for 10 seconds empty image / color bar to give the limit so that easier to search the image when editing

3. Check the audio set up, no more than 0db. the easiest thing to do is to see the graphic audio not to red

4. Setting the atmosphere / natural sound on channel 1 and interview on channel 2h

5. Record selectively, no redundant images or shake and never hesitate. Discipline with star, stop and record and get used to edit by camera
6. Be quiet when taking pictures because audio makes videos into three dimensions and you need ambient sound

7.If you have to direct the object, do not direct while recording. But point first if need to give a new example record. In order for you to get natural soundnya without your noisy voice

8. Hold all shoots between 8 - 15 seconds to make editing easier

9.Do not repeat the image with the same object, composition and angle.

10.Minimalis camera movement. Camera movement will be very beautiful if accompanied by intent and motivation. Example: panning to show the building area

11. Begin and end the camera movement with still shoot 8 seconds, to make editing easier

12. Record in sequence: wide shoot, medium, detail, varied angle

13. Always use a tripod when recording a silent subject

14. Always use a tripod when interviewing a sitting subject

15.Do not lazy to close the object when taking pictures, minimalist zoom in because the image will be rocky and shake

16.If the subject you are interviewing sees / conscious camera, put him right in the middle of Close Up / Medium Close Up

17. Change the angle and perspective as beautifully as possible. Do not treat the camera like your eyes

18.If the subject sees the reporter, eye level composition is very good. Use the "nose room" and "looking room" rules place the tip of the nose right in the center of the camera, do not place the subject in the center in this composition

19.Tell the subject to see the reporter and never see the camera and do not make eye contact during recording

20.If interviews more than one subject put a different looking room between one subject to another

21. As an introductory picture when editing, record the sequence of conversations between the reporter and the subject (5 - 8 angles)

22.Tebarlah view do not be careless beware every moment

23. Be a forecaster and predict what will happen later

24. To get the perfect Depth Of Field, maximize zoom in and play focus

25. Make a little effect to get rid of the boredom of the image. Change Focus between subjects to another subject, Background Effects away from the subject: track movement while zooming in and vice versa

26. Do not hesitate to take a picture of Extrem Close Up27.Try editing because then you will know what images are redundant and which ones
TIPS For cameramen to overcome:
1. Picture shake
The last rocking image is undesirable and can confuse the viewer. This kind of image is generated from video shooting with the wrong hand grip on the camera (grip) and good breath settings. Solution 1: Use a sturdy tripod while shooting video. Learn how to set up a tripod - including the wheels if necessary - so you can stay dynamic in shooting needs; 2) if you hold the camera by hand then follow the following tips: a) lean body on something solid, grip the camera grip to the body and set the breath well; b) it's better to lean the camera on something solid like a desk;
2. Too much zoom
Image zoom is not good because the details of the object is difficult to catch, the focus becomes difficult to adjust (manual and automatic drawings) and the image becomes easy shake. Unleashed, close-up close-up images will have a strong appeal to the resulting video shoot. Most amateur cameramen use the zoom facility for the following reasons: a) happy to play this unique feature; b) miss the object, which is a very important shooting object away from the cameramen position c) shy or lazy casual object, for example there is a beautiful lady who is a good show for the shooting but the cameraman is embarrassed to take a close shot to take a close-up shot; d) quibble to take "candid camera". Solution 1): mature ripe objects that are in-shooting (again, ideally already formulated in a scenario); 2) in the coverage of an event, ask first to schedule the event and then study, while continuing to work with the organizing committee; 3) should train the confidence to always appear back and forth in public, hopefully a good point of view; 4) to complement the case, it can be thought of a better alternative than. Picture "candid camera" is bad because taken with zoom.
3. Too many pan
Pan is moving the horizontal camera to the left or right of a cameraman while taking a picture of the surroundings. With a gentle pan that can add dynamic images, a fast pan will confuse the audience, as well as the resulting image is less sharp (because the camera is confused with focus refinement). Most amateur cameramen often use excessive pan because: a) "want to convey complete information" through the drawing, without precedence shooting planning; b) he is confused, what pictures will be taken with his video camera. Solution 1) Get used to writing a shooting plan while interpreting what to say with the object / activities to be shooting; 2) in accordance with the shooting plan, prepare yourself well for the shooting site, if possible first the good corners and maybe to be taken.
4. Image not focus (blur)
The amateur cameraman is assumed to use the camera with auto focus settings, but there are times when the video shooting results fail to focus. This is often thanks to the movement of the camera (pan) is too fast. The other is the long shot distance so many objects in the frame are at different distances so that the camera is difficult to determine the focus. Solution 1) reduce pan; 2) get used to seeing objects before taking pictures, so there can be close-up images or medium-shot bonuses, which can produce better object details.
5. False light
The ability of a cameraman to use light - both natural and artificial - will be the determinant of his superiority. An amateur cameraman (with the theme of using an auto video camera) is usually often wrong on: a) backlight, ie shooting at an angle against a light source; b) too high, for example in an open space with a dark-skinned person with a white sky background. Solution 1) if backlight is unavoidable (no other angle options) then do not forget to enable the backlight feature on the video camera; 2) close angle shooting (medium-shoot, close-up and even extreme close-ups) can reduce the color expressed by the video camera lens.
6. Framing
The amateur cameraman always pairs the object in the middle of the camera frame. Ideally, this framing is a "Third Rule" (the third) which is also known in the world of photography. This rule in question is if the camera screen is divided into three (either vertically or horizontally), then the object must be in the lines of the meeting (so not in the middle, but sideways). If so then there is an object space and an empty space. This empty space can be filled with interesting backgrounds. For framing the interview scene or monologue where on the screen appear a person who spoke in front of the camera to the side, then the oblique direction is overlooking the empty field.
7. Angle of shooting (angle)
Many amateur cameramen also often take pictures too far, ie Medium Shot (MS) or even Long Shot (LS), on the corner of this camera the details of the object are not caught clearly. On the number of home video products such as wedding videos, event coverage videos, birthday videos, and more, the biggest potential attraction is the emotion / human expression radiating from the faces of the actors. Therefore it is advisable to do a lot of experiments about the angle of the camera, especially for the corner lift Up (CU) and Extreme Close Up (ECU).

Media Reporter
for news coverage to the field do not need a crew dg large amount. A cameraman is only accompanied by a reporter. News producers assign tasks to news coverage teams to cover the news they want. Cameraman and reporter to the scene. Cameramen cover the moment that occurs, if it can meet the rules of 5 W + 1 H (who, when, where, why, + how). At the request of the reporter usually cameramen also take some pictures that need.
Unlike events where shooting is done in line with nazca and director directing, on a news event a cameraman must have a height in each image. If the recorded images should be edited on the camera, this is to facilitate the post-production workmanship. For live or live coverage, there is no minimum error in shooting, of course, because in live broadcast can not retake / repeat. B Workshop dg reporter, a cameraman must be observant for the news that covered more value. Coordination in the field must also be maintained especially in the above often occur seizures in taking pictures. Creating a good point of view or angle is the main thing also stability in the handheld camera. Adapting with sikoningin this trivial, but I think this is very important. Sometimes many situations we never expected before. If we can not cope with the situation they can be bad. In the war coverage as an example, if we are not smart to choose the location then do not rule out things that are not desirable. Work quickly Fast, accurate, and reliable.

A cameraman must work fast. Why? because it must always be warm. If not then the news coverage that we get so stale, first by the other coverage.

Director or filmmaker
people who keep a movie in accordance with the manuscript (Filmmaker is also used for producer film). Scenario manuscripts are used to control aspects of art and drama. At the same time, the director escorts officers or technical workers and actors to fulfill their directional insights. A director also plays a role in guiding crew technicians and film actors in realizing the creativity it has.
The responsibility of a director is to be responsible for the creative aspects of filmmaking, both interpretative and technical. It holds the highest position in terms of artistic and speed of filmmaking and dialogue making, director and position control can be tried with cameras, sounds, lighting, and other things that contribute to the end result of a film. about "how it should look" by the audience. Besides arranging the behavior in front and directing
In carrying out his responsibilities a director works with film crew photographers, costume stylist, camera stylist and so on. In addition, the director is also involved in the making of films ranging from pre-production, production, to post-production. and cast the film. Among them
Producer
someone who is generally responsible for all production plivers. Production-oriented usually with audio-visual products such as the production of radio broadcasts, recorded music or songs, movies, commercials, and TV programs.
Function in general
producer functions in different fields are different from each other. In the production of radio broadcasts for example, producers often do work that is starting from gathering broadcast materials to meramunya into a feasible broadcast program. For the field of television and film producer function can be practically similar. However, there is a difference in the role of producers in the production of television and movie broadcasts. In the production of television broadcasting, producers are individuals who deserve credit for one program as a work. While in the production film, the praise is usually given to the director. in the television production of a more producer. Sometimes it is difficult for many people to distinguish between the producer and the director, because it is different thin. Actually the producer and director function is almost the same. It's just what distinguishes a producer more involved during the preproduction and the director during production.

Edit a video
The process of connecting images from multiple single shot to a whole story. This shot-shot editor becomes a scene, then from this collection of scene-scene will create the sequence in the end will create a whole film. Like writing a story, a shot can be said a word, a scene is a sentence, the order is a paragraph. A story will be full of all these elements, as well as films.
An editor must know how to tell a good story. He is responsible for the final work of a film. Without a good editing process, a production that has sacrificed money and energy goes to waste. It is true, an editor can only produce a good movie, as well as the material he received. It's just that a good and creative editor is able to overcome all the shortcomings that occur during the shooting process. Once the audience never knows where the imperfection is located.
An editor is required to make decisions at all times. He determines which shot to wear, how long the shot will be used, when a shot should be cut, how the order of shots is arranged, and so on. An early scene could have started with an Establish Shot of a scene, but could also start with a Close Up actor. A similar material can produce many possibilities. Good luck with different editors. Do not hesitate to experiment in compiling these shots.