The Scope of Broadcasting
According to the history of broadcasting discussed earlier, the existing broadcasting forms on radio today, the embryo has been present in the previous communications technology, the telephone. Then what distinguishes between broadcasts on the phone and radio? The innovation of wireless communication technology is the answer. This results in the need for downhill wiring, even none. From the economic side, this innovation is really efficient because the required devices are getting less and the distance is not a constraint anymore. In contrast to the communications using cables, the distance factor is a factor to be taken into account as it affects the use of cables. The use of electromagnetic waves in the free space is what in its development to form the character of radio and television.
Then what is the definition of broadcasting in the contemporary literature and how the scope of the broadcasting system? Broadcasting in English is defined as the delivery of programs by radio and television media (the sending out program by radio or television). Broadcasting comes from a verb to broadcast which is defined as a tool of speech or appearing on radio or television (to speak or appear on radio or television). In addition, broadcaster is a professional designation for the person in charge of sending programs on radio or television only (A.S. Hornby in Masduki, 2006: 1). In other dictionaries, broadcasting is defined as radio and television broadcasts or broadcast media. Thus, calling the broadcasting media is what is meant by television and radio, ie two communication mediums that use the frequency spectrum to deliver the program in the form of combined sound or sound (Masduki, 2006: 1).
In addition, broadcasting is understood as a means of forwarding images of goods from producers to consumers, and as a way to create a shared experience for the millions who live together in a community or country. To that end, television is a ritual medium in which the feeling of communication emerges more important than its message. Thus, television has an impact, namely the form of social impetus and the creation of social adaptation process (Geoff Mulgan in Masduki, 2006: 2).
The use of the term broadcasting macro refers to the radio and television electronic media. In its denotative meaning, broadcasting terms are defined as: radio or television presentation. Richard Weiner states that broadcasting or broadcasting is a single radio or television program, the transmission or duration of the program any message that is transmitted over a large area. In addition, the formulation of the United Nations special organ convention in the telecommunications field of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), concerning broadcasting services is a radio communication service that transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmission or other types of transmission (Hermin Indah Wahyuni in Masduki, 2006: 2-3).
Before discussing the broadcasting system, it is best to describe the definition of the system itself. Masduki cites the term system disclosed by David Easton in his A System Analysis of Political Life to explain the overall interaction that resulted in the division of values in society. Systems are often juxtaposed with procedures, which have the sense that the regular administration of interrelated activities. Therefore, the procedure is a series of steps that must be taken in initiating, implementing, controlling, and completing various repetitions. Thus the system is a regular organization so that the procedure has a series of steps and classification as a way to achieve the goal. For that, the system is opposed to classification as a means of achieving objectives, and in contrast to the classification that is interpreted as a way of valuing elements, such as objects, ideas, and sentences into groups of similar characteristics. The characteristics of the system are of elements that have a certain relationship. Each has an opportunity to influence and be influenced. The interaction between the elements of one with the other elements in the system leads to changes in each character (Redi Panuju in Masduki, 2006: 3).
From the two elements of the word “broadcasting and system” it can be concluded that the broadcasting system is a series of regular broadcasting and describes the interaction of various elements in it such as values, institutions, individuals, broadcasters and broadcast programs. The broadcasting system also encompasses the procedures and classifications implicit in the rules of the game, such as laws. The scope of the broadcasting system discourse discourse is increasingly widespread and complex because of the funding and supervision of the public over the media broadcast radio and television (Masduki, 2006: 3-4).
In reviewing the broadcasting system, two important theories were initiated by Joseph R. Dominick, quoted by Masduki (2006: 5). First, the scarcity theory which notes that electromagnetic waves are limited. This limitation can only be used by broadcasting stations in a limited way so that only a handful of people can use it. Of the many potential users of frequency, the state must select the frequency users who are considered capable of managing and responsible to the public. Second, the pervasive presence theory which assumes that the broadcast media is very dominant influence to the public, through a message that is so massive and enter the private territory that needs to be arranged so that all the interests of society can be accommodated and protected. This theory requires the role of the state through a democratic process of regulating the content of broadcast media. Based on these two theories, the system of ownership and management of media in various countries, generally not centered on one side in society.