Basic Photography Techniques

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Focusing is the activity of adjusting the sharpness of a photo object, done by turning the focus ring on the lens so that it can be seen in the viewfinder of the object that was not clear enough to be clear (focus). Photos are said to focus if the object looks sharp / clear and has firm lines (not blurred). In the focus ring, there are numbers that indicate the distance (in meters or feet) of an object with a lens.
The most important thing that must be considered in doing a photo shoot is lighting. Lighting is the process of celebrating the film in the camera. In this case, the light received by the object must be sufficient so that it can be recorded in the film. 
The process of lighting (exposure) involves a combination of several things, namely the size of the diaphragm opening, shutter speed and sensitivity of the film (ISO). These three things determine the success of the photographer in getting a film that is normal, that is, the light that enters the film according to what the object requires, is not excess light (over exposed) or lack of light (under exposed).
C. Diaphragm opening (apperture)
The diaphragm functions as a window on the lens that controls a little or a lot of light passing through the lens. The large size of the diaphragm opening is represented by f / number. These numbers are printed on the lens: 1.4; 2; 2.8; 4; 5.6; 8; 11; 16; 22; etc. Writing the diaphragm is f / 1.4 or f / 22. These figures show the size of the diaphragm opening on the lens. The diaphragm opening is used to determine the intensity of the incoming light.
D. The relationship between numbers and diaphragm openings is inversely proportional.
“The greater the f / number, the smaller the aperture of the diaphragm, so the less incoming light. Conversely, the smaller the f / number the wider the diaphragm opening so that the incoming light will be more and more. “
E. Shutter speed (shutter speed)
The shutter speed is fast or slow the shutter works open and then closes again. Shutter speed controls the length of light about the film. The way the shutter works like a window. The shutter is in front of the film plane and is always closed when the shutter release is not pressed, to protect the film area from light. When the shutter release is pressed, the shutter will open and close again so that light can enter and illuminate the film.

The size of the shutter speed is calculated in units per second, namely: 1; 2; 4; 8; 15; 30; 60; 125; 250; 500; 1000; 2000; and B. The number 1 means the shutter opens at a speed of 1/1 second. Number 2000 means the shutter opens at a speed of 1/2000 seconds, etc. B (Bulb) means speed without time limit (shutter opens as long as the shutter release is pressed)
The relationship between a number and the shutter speed of opening and closing is directly proportional. “The bigger the number means the faster the shutter opens and closes, the less light enters. The smaller the number, meaning the slower the shutter opens and closes, the more light it enters “
F. Film Sensitivity (ISO)
The smaller the film unit (the lower the ISO), the less sensitive the film is so that more light is needed to illuminate the film, on the contrary the higher the ISO, the more sensitive the film is so that less light is needed to illuminate the film. For example, ASA 100 is more lucrative

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