A. BEFORE ADMISSION
1. The basic principles of pinhole cameras are found in Chinese texts from the fifth century BC. Based on his experience, the Chinese writer found that the light shone across a distance in a straight line. The philosopher Mo Ti (later Mo Tsu) was the first to observe the formation of a reverse image with a small hole. Mo realized that objects reflect light in all directions and that the reflection of light on the top of an object as it passes through the hole will be projected at the bottom, in other words the image of the object will appear reversed (Hammond 1981: 1)
2. In the western hemisphere of Aristotle (fourth century BC) In Book XV, 6, he asked: “Why when the sun’s light breaks through a rectangular hole like a woven item, does it produce a rectangular shape on the reflection but a circle?” Book XV, 11, he asked again: “Why does the eclipse of the Sun form like a sickle, if seen through the cracks of the boxes or irregular crevices of its shape like a fissure, the visible crescent-shaped light is projected on the ground? Is it for the same reason as when light enters through a rectangular hole, it will still appear circular like a cone shape? ” (Aristotle 1936: 333,341). Aristotle found no satisfactory explanation and the question remained unresolved until the 16th century (Hammond 1981: 5).
Camera Obscura discovery. Camera (room) Obscura (dark) which means dark room.
1. Ibn Al Haitam (Al Hazen), an Arab scholar in the XI century AD wrote the principle theory of lenses that supports Aristotle’s theory above which deals with enlargement using concave and convex lenses and mirrors. He is the person who first discovered the relationship between the source of light, the lens and the resulting image. That is why it is called “Al-Hazen Theorem”. He also explained how the eye could see. He said that we can only see when light falls on the object and then bounces into our eyes. His works are the source of Roger Bacon’s book and other western knowledge experts.
2. Leonardo da Vinci, at the end of the 15th century tried to describe in detail about this dark room / camera obscura. With this tool the symptoms of the Sun like an eclipse can be observed.
3. Cesare Cesarino, one of the Leonardo da Vinci students in 1521 explained the basic principle of camera obscura in the introduction to Vitruvius’s article entitled “De Architektura”
4. Girolamo Cardano, a doctor from the city of Milan in his book De Subtilitate in 1550 completes camera obscura by adding a biconvex lens or a lens on both sides of the convex to the aperture hole to provide a brighter and clearer image.
5. Giovani Battista della porta, in 1558 in his book Magiae Naturalis wrote in full the explanation of camera obscura recommended as “An aid in drawing” or drawing aids.
6. Danielo Barbaro, a respected figure from the Italian city of Venice, in his book “La Pratica della perspettiva” in 1568 stated that by changing the various sizes of diaphragm openings at the point of obscura will affect the sharpness of the image. In his experiments he used a simple lens to sharpen the projection of the shadow entering through the hole. Although the results are not perfect but this year marks the use of the diaphragm on the lens in the development of camera obscura.
7. Egnatio Danti, a mathematician from Florence, in his book “La prospettiva di Euclide” in 1573 contributed to important changes in camera obscura by adding a concave mirror to normalize the upside down image (to redress the hitherto inverted image)
8. Daniel Schwenter, 1636 a mathematics professor from the university of Altdorf, Germany in his book “Deliciae physico mathematicae” explained in detail about the use of a lens system based on three different focus distances. He also laid the foundations for using round lenses in the creation of panoramic photos.
9. Johan Zahn, 1685-1686 a pastor in Warzburg made various illustrations of various types of box camera obscura which were portable enough that could be carried everywhere which was explained in his book oculus artificialis teledioptricus. The Zhan camera is 9 inches tall and two feet long made of wood. This camera is not only equipped with a lens that can be pushed backwards to find the sharpness of the image but is also equipped with a diaphragm and reflective glass to see / control the capture of the lens from outside the box. This Zahn creation tool is actually very identical to the way the single lens reflex camera works today.
Joseph Max Petzval created a lens that was almost 16 times stronger than the Daguerre lens. This lens has a diaphragm of around f / 17. After that there was the discovery of Shutter (shutter) which can adjust the lighting of the film. The shutter that is first used is not installed in the camera but in front of the lens. This shutter is similar to guilotine, when the button is removed, the board that is given a hole will fall through the lens and give an opportunity for light to enter.
In 1888 George Eastman managed to market a box camera with the Kodak brand that was easy to use. Moreover, he sold roll film with celluloid pads in 1891 which could be loaded into the camera without having to go through a dark room. The job of shooting is easier and more practical.
Around 1924 in Germany the company Leitz Wetzlar introduced a small 35mm format camera designed by Oscar Barnack. This camera came up with the name Leica and was famous as a pioneer of the 35mm format camera. since then, the development of photography has not stopped. Photo factories came up with new discoveries such as Kodak, Rolleiflex, Rolleicord, Linholf, Nikon, Canon, Fujika, Fuji, Pentax, Mamiya, Yashica, Ricoh, Minolta, Horseman, Sinar. Until the arrival of several new companies at the end of 2010. And from the latest data nearly around 250 companies producing cameras and lenses are on the market.
MODERNIZATION ERA DEVELOPMENT
The development and growth of photography itself is very fast and growing steadily until now, the developments made by camera companies make competition between one camera and other camera manufacturers vying to issue their best camera ideas.
Like the addition of megapixels that are believed to be every photographer, the more the camera has a large megapixel, the better the image produced. Continued development with an increase in the sensor / processor from the camera itself.
And in modern humans themselves, being able to use the camera properly, such as promoting a product and goods, to monitoring and research. And the benefits of using the camera make humans easy to remember a memory until now.
But it’s a pity to add so many camera features to make the camera good, but sometimes it makes the users confused in using it.
Ansel Adam stated that photography is more than just a means of factual communication ideas. Photography is a creative art. Photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication offers unlimited perceptions, interpretations and executions.
This one definition cannot be denied, because in reality photography is indeed the youngest branch of art.
Another thing revealed by Elliot Erwitt, photography is an observation art for him. It is about how to find something fun in a normal place.
So in the sense of this one, accuracy to find and find an object is the key to the art of photography itself.
But for Michael Langford, basically photography is a combination of imagination and visual design, skills and practical organizing abilities.
So, not only capturing images, but also “arranging” the objects in them in order to achieve new aesthetic values.
Broadly speaking, the notion of photography is a process or method for producing images or photographs of an object by recording the reflection of light that affects the object on light-sensitive media.
The principle of photography itself is to focus light with the help of refraction so that it can burn the medium of catching light.
Well, a medium that has been burned with the right size of luminous light will produce an image that is identical to the light entering the refraction medium (lens).
Now, from the many photos you’ve seen, can you realize that in each photo has a different focus? The difference in focus is what makes this photography art has many types in it.